Composer:Witold Lutosławski; Original title: Sacher Variation na wiolonczelę solo ; year of completion: ; instrumentation: cello solo; commission: Mścisław. Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his name. The work was requested by Mstislav Rostropovich, who gave the first. Witold Lutoslawski: Sacher Variation For Solo Cello Music Sales America Series Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his.
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This translation of the article, lutoslxwski is made by the author himself, is unpublished. The work bases its existence mainly on the aural world that is a result of this derivation.
Thus, it has been accepted that the discussed formations could be results of extremely complex, interwoven principles which cannot be explained with a view from the outside, as well as they could be determined by the completely personal choices.
The differences between the two threads of the work. That the whole aural world, which is the primary foundation of the work, is going to be change if only one note in the Sacher hexachord is replaced with another one shows how integrated the Sacher hexachord with the overall structure of the work is.
After the repetition of the remaining first two notes four times, Thread I is ended with the note E flat, which is lutislawski first note of both the hexachord and the work. The pitches of the Thread II divided into phrases.
References Beck, Conrad et al. Help Center Find new research papers in: The Cambridge Companion to the Cello. This pitch is also transposed up by an octave in the third presentation, and this process continues until lutoslawskii 18th presentation of the hexachord.
Thus variwtions perception of the former one is much easier. The principle which the increase of the numerical quantity of the phrases is based on. It will vvariations seen that Lutoslawski, who excludes serial techniques and works with extremely limited pitch material, provides the formal development through a mechanical system and also uses the looseness as a formal element beside the organization.
Besides all these, the Sacher hexachord, which is aurally in the fore- ground, does structurally not play any effective role in the work, such that the row is repeated in its original arrangement and without being trans- posed throughout the work. The Sacher hexachord Forte number: That the phrases of Thread I, whose development is realized due to the highly consistent organization principles, carry the structure in a similar way that strong columns carry the building plays the most important role to provide the integrity of the work, of course.
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In contrast to the rest of Variatiins I, here the dynamic levels mf, p, and pp are present, and the notes of the hexachord are used simultaneously for the first time. Repeated again and again, it creates a long sequence of notes. There is a good reason for this.
Towarzystwo im. Witolda Lutosławskiego
Thread II contrasts with Thread I in every respect. A possible reason for this is that the composer regarded the pitch A two octave above the first open string as the highest limit because it was undesirable for the composer to enter into a register where the characteristic timbre of the violoncello would not be present any more. In the first two measures of variationw movement, which is written with the twelve-tone technique, sqcher pitches of the twelve-tone row are played by the mandolin and guitar, and two pitches that remains are played by the violin and bass clarinet respectively.
The longest presentation of the theme leads to a climax, in which the cello frantically repeats the first two notes in the series: After this transposition, the note Lutoslawsli becomes the lowest sounding pitch of the second presentation.
Log In Sign Up. The note which is transposed is always the lowest sounding pitch of the particular presentation of the hexachord. Due to these reasons, it is thought that these two pitches have been given a structural significance.
Example 3 below shows the first four lines of the score. The phrases, which consist only of the note values of quaver and semi- quaver, are rhythmically in order, as well. Beginning with 1 as the numerical quantity of the first phrase, the number of the notes in each one of the following phrases is determined by the sum of the rotation lutosladski and the numerical quantity of the former phrase.
University of Varaitions Press. However, unlike some of these examples, the row in Example 2 has nothing to do with the concept hexachordal combinatoriality, which describes a particular construction of the twelve-tone row that consists of two hexachords which have in terms of the set theory the same prime forms, which means that the two hexachords are unchanged, inverted, or retrograded transpositions of each other see Cope The relation between the emphasized pitches B flat and D flat and the Sacher hexachord.
E flat or Es and A. It will be seen that not only pitches, but also other musical parameters such as the dynamic, the octave register, and the sachfr of the melodic contour are functioning as formal elements.
Vriations differences between the two threads of the work are given in Table 2 altogether. Ten of the twelve compositions, namely all works with the exception of those of Berio and Henze, were performed by Rostropovich himself on May 2,in Zurich, Switzerland Dunnagan Another remarkable characteristic of Thread II is that all the phrases except the last one end with the notes B flat and D flat, which may or may not be respectively.
While Thread Variztions uses a strictly working mechanism to organize pitches, the pitch material of Thread II is used freely, without being organized systematically. Unlike Lutoslawski, Holliger does not show any systematic approach to changing the octave registers of the pitches see Usman a: The systematic progression of the pitches of the Sacher hexachord from the lowest to the highest register of the violoncello.
However, the last necessary lutoslawwski for achieving lutoslaws,i initial arrangement of the row three octave higher, namely the transposition of the note B by an octave in the non-existent 19th presentation of the row, does not take place.
A, C, H the German name of the pitch class Band E; and there are two letters that do not indicate any specific pitch classes by themselves: The two developmental processes related to the hexachord, namely the gradual extension of the phrases of Thread Vzriations and the progression of the hexachord from the lowest to the highest variatilns of the violoncello throughout the work, should not be considered as technics applied particularly to the hexachord.